Church Construction as a Proxy for Economic Development: the Medieval Settlement Expansion Phase in the Peloponnese

Authors

  • Maria Papadaki

Keywords:

Medieval settlements, Peloponnese, Medieval landscape

Abstract

The Peloponnese, with its diverse and varied landscapes, positioned at the crossroads of land and sea connections between West and East, and having a rich archaeological and historical heritage, is one of the most significant regions of the Mediterranean world. Yet, while the special qualities of the region’s landscape are well known to geologists and environmentalists, the evolution of its historical sites and landscapes is much less understood. There has been a prioritization of certain periods, sites, and types of data – with a tendency to focus on the Classical and earlier periods – which has resulted in a disparity in the evidence collected for the various periods of its past. The importance of the medieval landscape is fundamental, as during this period the structure of the modern natural and cultural landscape took shape, such as the patterns of agricultural exploitation and settlement distribution. The medieval landscape formed a dynamic backdrop to people’s daily lives, providing the basis for their sense of place and identity.

References

Adanir, F., 2006. Semi-autonomous provincial forces in the Balkans and Anatolia, in S. Faroqhi (ed.) The Cambridge History of Turkey, Volume 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ahrweiler, H. 1994. Τό ὁδικό δίκτυο τῆς Βυζαντινῆς Πελοποννήσου, in H. Kalligas (ed.) Δ΄ Συμπόσιο Ιστορίας και Τέχνης προς τιμήν του Σερ Στήβεν Ράνσιμαν, Περιηγητές και Αξιουματούχοι στην Πελοπόννησο. Περιγραφές-Αναφορές-Στατιστικές, 26-28 Ιουλίου 1991: 21-30. Monemvasia: Monemvasiotikos Omilos.

Ambraseys, N.N. and J.A. Jackson 1997. Seismicity and Strain in the Gulf of Corinth (Greece) since 1694. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 1: 433-474.

Ambraseys, N. 2009. Earthquakes in the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East: a multidisciplinary study of seismicity up to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anagnostakis, I. 1989. Τὸ ἐπεισόδιο τῆς Δανιηλίδας: Πληροφορίες καθημερινοῦ βίου ἢ μυθοπλαστικὰ στοιχεῖα;, in X. Aggelidi (ed.) Πρακτικά του Α΄ Διεθνούς Συμποσίου: H Καθημερινή Ζωή στο Βυζάντιο, Τομές και συνέχειες στην ελληνιστική και ρωμαϊκή παράδοση, Αθήνα, 15-17 Σεπτεμβρίου 1988: 375-390. Athens: Section of Byzantine Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Anagnostakis, I. 2002. Παράκτιοι οικισμοί της πρωτοβυζαντινής Μεσσηνίας. Η σιωπή των πηγών και η αποσπασματική μαρτυρία της αρχαιολογίας, in P. Themelis and V. Konti (eds) Πρωτοβυζαντινή Μεσσήνη και Ολυμπία, Αστικός και Αγροτικός χώρος στη Δυτική Πελοπόννησο, Πρακτικά του Διεθνούς Συμποσίου, Aθήνα 29-30 May 1998: 137-160. Αthens: Institute of Byzantine Research / National Hellenic Research Foundation and Society of Messenian Archaeological Studies.

Anagnostakis, I. 2010. Οι επισκοπές και ο θρησκευτικός βίος στα όρια της νυν Μητροπόλεως Μεσσηνίας ως το 1204, in P.I. Sarantakis, Χριστιανική Μεσσηνία: Μνημεία και Ιστορία της Ιεράς Μητροπόλεως Μεσσηνίας: 113-145. Athens: Militos Editions.

Anagnostakis, I. 2018. The Time in Nikon Repent Ye: for is coming …, in H. Saranti, E. Dellaporta, E. Th. Kollyropoulou (eds) Όψεις του Βυζαντινού Χρόνου, Πρακτικά Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου, 29-30 Μαΐου 2015: 196-218. Athens: University of the Peloponnese and Byzantine and Christian Museum.

Anagnostakis, I. and E. Balta (eds) 2020. Ελιά και λάδι στην ανατολική Μεσόγειο από την Αρχαιότητα στην προβιομηχανική εποχή. Athens: Piraeus Bank Group Cultural Foundation and Institute of Historical Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Angold, M. 1984. Archons and Dynasts: Local Aristocracies and the Cities of the Later Byzantine Empire’, in M. Angold (ed.) The Byzantine Aristocracy, IX to XIII Centuries (BAR International Series 221): 236-253. Oxford: B.A.R..

Armstrong, P. 2002. The Survey area in the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, in W. Cavanagh, J. Crouwel, R.W.V. Catling and G. Shipley (eds) Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape. The Laconia Survey. I. Methodology and Interpretation (British School at Athens Supplement 26): 339-402. London: British School at Athens

Armstrong, P. 2009. Merchants of Venice at Sparta in the 12th century, in W.G. Cavanagh, C. Gallou and M. Georgiadis (eds) Sparta and Laconia: From Prehistory to Pre-modern, Proceedings of the Conference held in Sparta, organized by the British School at Athens and the University of Nottingham, the 5th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and the 5th Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities 17-20 March 2005 (British School at Athens Studies, Volume 16): 313-321. London: British School at Athens.

Armstrong, P. 2020. Greece in the eleventh century, in J. Howard-Johnston (ed.) Social change in town and country in eleventh-century Byzantium (Oxford Studies in Byzantium): 133-156. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arthur, P. 2004: From Vicus to Village: Italian Landscapes, AD 400-1000, in N. Christie (ed.) Landscapes of Change, Rural Evolutions in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: 103-134. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Athanasoulis, D. and K. Skarmoutsou-Dimitropoulou 2012. 25η Εφορεία Αρχαιότητων, in M. Ανδρεαδάκη-Βλαζάκη (ed.) 2000-2010, Aπό το ανασκαφικό έργο των Eφορείων Αρχαιοτήτων: 139-142. Athens: Μinistry of Culture and Tourism.

Athanassopoulos, E.F. 2010. Landscape Archaeology and the Medieval Countryside. Resettlement and Abandonment in the Nemea Region. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 255-270.

Athanassopoulos, E.F. 2016. Nemea Valley Archaeological Project Volume 2. Landscape Archaeology and the Medieval Countryside. Princeton: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Athanasoulis, D. 2013. Corinth, in J. Albani and E. Chalkia (eds) Heaven and Earth, Cities and Countryside in Byzantine Greece: 192-207. Athens: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports and Benaki Museum.

Athanasoulis, D. 2016: Σημείωμα για την αργολική βυζαντινή αρχιτεκτονική, in D. Athanassoulis and A. Vassiliou (eds) Βυζαντινό Μουσείο Αργολίδας: κατάλογος μόνιμης έκθεσης: 84-102. Athens: Kapon Editions.

Athanasoulis, D. and A. Vassiliou 2016. Βυζαντινό Μουσείο Αργολίδας: κατάλογος μόνιμης έκθεσης. Athens: Kapon Editions.

Atherden, M.A. and J.A. Hall 2009. The Strymon Delta Project: the Palynological evidence, in J. Bintliff and H. Stöger (eds) Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece: the Corfu Papers (British Archaeological Reports International Series 2023): 33-42. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Avraméa, A. 1995. La géographie du culte de Saint Christophe en Grèce à l’époque méso-byzantine et l’èvèché de Lacedèmone au début du Xe siècle, in H. Ahrweiler (ed.) Geographica Byzantina (Byzantina Sorbonensia 3): 31-36. Paris: Éditions de la Sorbonne. Available online, see Éditions de la Sorbonne, 1995, <https://books.openedition.org/psorbonne/1985>.

Avraméa, A. 1997. Le Péloponnèse du IVe au VIIIe siècle. Changements et persistances (Byzantina Sorbonensia 15). Paris: Éditions de la Sorbonne.

Avramea, A. 2002. Land and Sea Communications, Fourth-Fifteenth centuries, in A.E. Laiou (ed.) The economic history of Byzantium from the seventh through the fifteenth century, Volume 1: 57-90. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Bakourou, Aim. 2009. Τοπογραφικές παρατηρήσεις για τη Μεσοβυζαντινή Λακεδαιμονία, in W.G. Cavanagh, C. Gallou and M. Georgiadis (eds) Sparta and Laconia: From Prehistory to Pre-modern, Proceedings of the Conference held in Sparta, organized by the British School at Athens and the University of Nottingham, the 5th Ephoreia of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities and the 5th Ephoreia of Byzantine Antiquities 17-20 March 2005 (British School at Athens Studies, Volume 16): 301-311. London: British School at Athens.

Bandy, A. 2000. Nikon Metanoeite: Testament of Nikon the Metanoeite for the Church and Monastery of the Savior, the Mother of God, and St. Kyriake in Lakedaimon, in J. Thomas and A. Constantinides-Hero, Byzantine monastic foundation documents: a complete translation of the surviving founders’ typika and testaments Volume 1 (Dumbarton Oaks Studies 35): 313-322. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Bekker, I. (ed.) 1838. Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus. Bonn: E. Weber.

Bintliff, J.L. 1996. The Frankish countryside in central Greece: the evidence from archaeological field survey, in P. Lock and G.D.R. Sanders (eds) The Archaeology of Medieval Greece (Oxbow monograph 59): 1-18. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Bintliff, J.L. 2000. Reconstructing the Byzantine countryside: new approaches from landscape archaeology, in K. Belke, F. Hild, J. Koder and P. Soustal (eds) Byzanz als Raum. Zu Methoden und Inhalten der Historischen Geographie des Ostlischen Mittelmeerraumes im Mittelalter: 37-63. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Bintliff, J.L. 2005. Explorations in Boeotian population history, in Smith P.L. (ed.) Festschrift for J. M. Fossey. The Ancient World 36.1: 5-17.

Bintliff, J.L. 2007. Current Research on the Settlement of Boeotia in the Medieval and Early Modern Era: The Boeotia Village History Project, in K. Fittschen (ed.) Historische Landeskunde und Epigraphik in Griechenland: 217-227. Münster: Scriptorium.

Bintliff, J.L. 2012. The Complete Archaeology of Greece. From Hunter-Gatherers to the 20th Century A.D. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Bintliff, J.L., E. Farinetti, B. Slapsak and A. Snodgrass (eds) 2017. Boeotia Project, Volume II: The City of Thespiai. Survey at a Complex Urban Site (McDonald Institute Monographs). Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Bintliff, J.L., E. Farinetti and A. Snodgrass (eds) Forthcoming. The Greek City State on a Small Scale. Hyettos in Boeotia and its Territory. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Bommeljé, S. 2009. Three Forts in a Sea of Mountains: The Lidoriki District and the Medieval History of Aetolia, in J.L. Bintliff and H. Stöger (eds) Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. The Corfu Papers (British Archaeological Reports International Series 2023): 1-13.Oxford: Archaeopress.

Bodnar, E.W. and Cl. Foss 2003 (eds). Cyriac of Ancona. Later Travels (The I Tatti Renaissance Library 10), Cambridge, Massachusetts-London: Harvard University Press.

Bouras, Ch. 1987. L’église de la Theotokos de la citadelle d’Argos. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 111: 455- 469.

Bouras, Ch. 2002. Aspects of the Byzantine city, eighth-fifteenth centuries, in A.E. Laiou (ed.) The economic history of Byzantium from the seventh through the fifteenth century, Volume 2: 497-554. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Bouras, Ch. and L. Boura 2002. Η ελλαδική ναοδομία κατά τόν 12ο αἰώνα. Athens: Emporiki Bank.

Bresc, H. and A. Nef (eds) 1999. Idrîsî, La première géographie de l’Occident. Présentation, notes, index, chronologie et bibliographie (Collection GF Flammarion). Paris: Flammarion.

Caraher, W.R. 2003. Church, Society and the Sacred in early Christian Greece. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Ohio State University.

Cavanagh, W., J. Crouwel, R.W.V. Catling, and G. Shipley 1996. Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape. The Laconia Survey. II. The Archaeological Data (Annual of the British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 27). London: British School at Athens.

Cavanagh, W., J. Crouwel, R.W.V. Catling and G. Shipley 2002. Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape. The Laconia Survey. I. Methodology and Interpretation (Annual of the British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 26). London: British School at Athens.

Cavanagh, W., Ch. Mee and P. James 2005. The Laconia Rural Sites Project (Annual of the British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 36). London: British School at Athens.

Charanis, P. 1946. Nicephorus I, the savior of Greece from the Slavs. Βυζαντινά-Μεταβυζαντινά 1: 75-92.

Chisholm, M. 1968. Rural settlement and Land Use. An essay in location. London: Hutchinson & Co.

Clendenon, C. 2009. Karst Hydrology in Ancient Myths from Arcadia and Argolis, Greece. Acta Carsologica 38.1: 145-154.

Crow, J. 2014. Perspectives on the archaeology of Byzantine Greece 600-1000 AD. Pharos 20.1: 291-311.

Ćurčić, Sl. 2008. Architecture in the Balkans. From Diocletian to Süleyman the Magnificent. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Curta, F. 2011. The Edinburgh History of the Greeks, c. 500 to 1050: the Early Middle Ages. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Da Costa-Louillet, G. 1961. Saints de Grèce aux VIIIe, IXe et Xe siècles. Byzantion 31: 309-369.

Dagron, G. 2002. The Urban Economy, Seventh-Twelfth Centuries, in A.E. Laiou (ed.) The economic history of Byzantium from the seventh through the fifteenth century, Volume 2: 393-461. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Darby, H.C., A.G. Ogilvie, J.B. Mitchell and N.J.G. Pounds 1945. Naval Geographical Intelligence Division Handbook Series, Greece: Regional Geography, Volume 3. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO).

Darrouzès, J. (ed.) 1981. Notitiae episcopatuum ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae. Texte critique, introduction et notes (Géographie ecclésiastique de l’Empire byzantin 1). Paris: Institut Français d’ Ètudes Byzantines.

Daskalakes, A. 1923. H Μάνη και η Οθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία: 1453-1821. Athens: Pelasgos.

Davis, J.L. (ed.) 1998. Sandy Pylos. An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Davis, J.L., S.E. Alcock, J. Bennet, Y.G. Lolos and C.W. Shelmerdine 1997. The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project Part I. Overview and the Archaeological Survey. Hesperia 66: 391-494.

Deilaki, Ev. 1973. Aρχαιότητες και Μνημεία Αργόλιδος-Κορινθίας 1971-1972. Ἀρχαιολογικὸν Δελτίον 28.B1: 80-122.

Drandakes, N. 1964. Ἀνασκαφή ἐις τὸ Τηγάνι τῆς Μάνης. Πρακτικά τῆς ἐν Αθήναις Ἀρχαιολογικῆς Ἑταιρείας: 121-135.

Drandakes, N. 1977. Ἔρευναι εἰς τήν Μάνην. Πρακτικά τῆς ἐν Αθήναις Ἀρχαιολογικῆς Ἑταιρείας: 200-228.

Drandakes, N. 2002. Βυζαντινά γλυπτά της Μάνης (The Library of the Archaeological Society at Athens 222). Αthens: Archaeological Society at Athens.

Dunn, A. 1983. The Strymon Delta Project, in D.R. Keller and D.W. Rupp (eds) Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (British Archaeological Reports International Series 155): 211-212. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Dunn, A. 1995. Historical and Archaeological Indicators on Economic Change in Middle Byzantine Boeotia and Their Problems, in Β΄ Διεθνές Συνέδριο Βοιωτικών Μελετών, Λιβαδειά, 6-10 Σεπτεμβρίου 1992, 2:755-774. Athens: Etaireia Voiotikon Meleton.

Dunn, A. 1999. From polis to kastron in southern Macedonia: Amphipolis, Khrysoupolis and the Strymon Delta in Castrum 5. Archéologie des espaces agraires méditerranéens au Moyen Âge. Actes du colloque de Murcie (8-12 mai 1992) (Collection de l’École française de Rome 105.5): 399-413. Rome: École française de Rome.

Dunn, A. 2000. Loci of maritime traffic in the Strymon Delta (IV-XVIIIcc): commercial, fiscal, and manorial, Οι Σέρρες και η περιοχή τους από την αρχαιότητα στη μεταβυζαντινή κοινωνία. Διεθνές συνέδριο: Σέρρες 29 Σεπτεμβρίου- 3 Οκτωβρίου 1993, Πρακτικά vol. 1: 339-360. Serres: Demos Serron.

Dunn, A. 2009. Byzantine and Ottoman maritime traffic in the estuary of the Strymon: between environment, state, and market, in J. Bintliff and H. Stöger (eds) Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece: The Corfu Papers (British Archaeological Reports International Series 2023): 15-31. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Eliopoulou-Rogan D., 1973. Mani History and Monuments. Athens: Lycabettus Press.

Evgenidou, D. and P. Kalamara 2001. Μονεμβασία. Αντικείμενα-Περιβάλλον-Ιστορία. Η Αρχαιολογική Συλλογή. Αthens: Hellenic Μinistry of Culture.

Feissel, D. and A. Philippidis-Braat 1985. Inventaires en vue d’un recueil des inscriptions historiques de Byzance. III. Inscriptions du Péloponnèse (à l’exception de Mistra). Travaux et Mémoires 9: 267-395.

Forsén, J. and B. Forsén 2003. The Asea Valley Survey. An Arcadian Mountain Valley from the Palaeolithic Period until Modern Times (Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae 4, Volume 51). Stockholm: Paul Forlag Astroms.

Gagtzes, D., M. Leontsini and A. Panopoulou 1993. Πελοπόννησος και Ν. Ιταλία: σταθμοί επικοινωνίας στη μέση βυζαντινή περίοδο, in N. G. Moschonas (ed.) Η Επικοινωνία στο Βυζάντιο, Πρακτικά Β΄ Διεθνoύς Συμποσίου του Κέντρου Βυζαντινών Ερευνών, 4-6 Οκτωβρίου 1990: 469-486. Athens: Athens: Institute for Byzantine Research/ National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Gerolymatou, M. 2008. Αγορές, έμποροι και εμπόριο στο Βυζάντιο (9ος-12ος αι.)

(Μονογραφίες 9). Athens: Institute for Byzantine Research/ National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Gerstel, S.E.J. 1998a. Painted Sources for Female Piety in Medieval Byzantium. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 52: 89-111.

Gerstel, S. 1998b. Medieval Messenia, in J. Davis (ed.) Sandy Pylos: An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino: 211-242. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Gerstel, S.E.J. 2005. The Byzantine village church: observations on its location and on agricultural aspects of its program, in J. Lefort, C. Morrisson and J.-P. Sodini (eds) Les Villages dans l’Empire byzantin, IVe-XVe siècle (Réalités byzantines 11): 165-178. Paris: Lethielleux.

Gioles, N. 2008-2009. Η ανασκαφή στο Τηγάνι της Μέσα Μάνης, in Eleutheriou Ev. and Mexia A. (eds) Επιστημονικό Συμπόσιο στη μνήμη Νικολάου Β. Δρανδάκη για τη βυζαντινή Μάνη: Καραβοστάσι Οιτύλου, 21-22 Ιουνίου 2008: Πρακτικά: 61-77. Sparta: Σπάρτη: Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού και Τουρισμού, 5η Εφορεία Βυζαντινών Αρχαιοτήτων Δήμος Οιτύλου.

Gregory, T.E. 2005. A history of Byzantium. Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Gregory, T.E. 2009. Ceramics, Metadata, and Expectations: The Problems of Synthetic Interpretation of Survey Data for Medieval Greece, in J.L. Bintliff and H. Stöger (eds) Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. The Corfu Papers (British Archaeological Reports International Series 2023): 79-88. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Guidoboni, E. 1994. Catalogue of ancient earthquakes in the Mediterranean area up to 10th century, Rome: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica.

Hadji-Minaglou, G. 1980. L’église de la Théotokos au cimetière d’Argos. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique Supp. 6: 493-499.

Hadji-Minaglou, G. 1984. Hagia Sotira d’Aniphi en Argolide. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 108: 599-614.

Hahn, M. 1996. The Berbati-Limnes Project, The Early Byzantine to Modern Periods, in B. Wells and C. Runnels (eds) The Berbati-Limnes Archaeological Survey 1988-1990 (Skrifter utgivna av Svenska institutet i Athen, 4o, Volume 44): 345-451. Stockholm: Paul Astroms.

Harvey, A. 1982-1983. Economic expansion in central Greece in the eleventh century. Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 8: 21-28.

Harvey, A. 1989. Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire 900–1200, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, A. 2008. The village, in E. Jeffreys, J. Haldon R. Cormack R. (eds) The Oxford handbook of Byzantine studies: 328-333. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hayer, D. 1987. La Dormition-de-la Vierge de Zaraphona (Laconie) des Elements nouveaux. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 80.2: 360-370.

Hayward, C.L. 2003. Geology of Corinth: The Study of a Basic Resource, in C.K. Williams II and N. Bookidis (eds) Corinth, Volume 20: The Centenary: 1896-1996: 15-42. Princeton N.J.: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Haldon, J. 2005. The Palgrave Atlas of Byzantine History. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hendy, M.F. 1985. Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300-1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Herrin, J. 1973. Aspects of the process of Hellenization in the early Middle Ages. Annual of the British School at Athens 68: 113-126.

Herrin, J. 1975. Realities of Byzantine Provincial Government: Hellas and Peloponnesos, 1180-1205. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29: 253-284.

Herrin, J. 2013. Margins and Metropolis, Authority across the Byzantine Empire. A Christian Millennium. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hild, Fr. and H. Hellenkemper 1990. Kilikien und Isaurien (Tabula Imperii Byzantini, Bd. 5; Denkschriften Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-Historische Klasse).Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press.

Ilieva, A. 1991. Frankish Morea (1205-1262), Socio-cultural Interaction between the Franks and the Local Population (Historical Publications 9). Athens: S. D. Basilopoulos.

Jacoby, D. 1992. Silk in Western Byzantium before the Fourth Crusade. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 84-85.2: 452-500.

Jacoby, D. 2005. Byzantine trade with Egypt from the mid-tenth century to the Fourth Crusade, in D. Jacoby, Commercial exchanges across the Mediterranean. Byzantium, the Crusader Levant, Egypt and Italy: 25-77. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum.

Jacoby, D. 2009. Venetian commercial expansion in the eastern Mediterranean, 8th-11th centuries, in M.M. Mango (ed.) Byzantine Trade, 4th-12th Centuries: The Archaeology of Local, Regional and International Exchange: 371-392. Farnham: Routledge.

Jacoby, D. 2013. Rural Exploitation and Market Economy in the Late Medieval Peloponnese, in S.E.J. Gerstel (ed.) Viewing the Morea. Land and People in the Late Medieval Peloponnese: 213-276. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Jameson, M.H. and C.N. Runnels and T.H. van Andel. 1994. A Greek Countryside. The Southern Argolid from Prehistoty to the Present Day. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Jaubert, P.A. (ed.) 1840. Géographie d’Édrisi: traduite de l’arabe en français d’après deux manuscrits de la Bibliothèque du roi et accompagnée de notes. 2 Volumes. Paris: Impr. royale.

Kalopissi-Verti, S. 2003. Epigraphic evidence in Middle-Byzantine Churches of the Mani. Patronage and Art Production, in Aspra-Vardabaki (ed.) Λαμπηδών. Αφιέρωμα στη μνήμη της Ντούλας Μουρίκη vol. 1: 339-354. Athens: Πανεπιστημιακές Εκδόσεις ΕΜΠ.

Kappas, M. 2010. The Church of Hagia Paraskevi at Trikorfo, Messenia: A Few Remarks about the Ecclesiastical Architecture in the South-West Peloponnese during the Period of the Macedonian Dynasty, in Architecture of Byzantium and Kievan Rus. From the 9th to the 12th Centuries. Materials of the International Seminar, November 17-21, 2009 (Transactions of the State Hermitage Museum LIII): 58-73. St. Petersburg: The State Hermitage Publishers.

Karambinis, M. 2018. Urban Networks in the Roman Province of Achaia (Peloponnese, Central Greece, Epirus and Thessaly). Journal of Greek Archaeology 3: 269-339.

Kazhdan, A.P. and A.W. Epstein 1985. Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Koder, J. 2005. Το Βυζάντιο ως χώρος. Εισαγωγή στην Ιστορική Γεωγραφία της Ανατολικής Μεσογείου στη Βυζαντινή Εποχή (translated by D. Stathakopoulos). Thessaloniki: Vanias.

Kordosis, M. 1981. Συμβολή στην ιστορία και τοπογραφία της περιοχής της Κορίνθου στους Μέσους Χρονους. Athens: Karavias.

Kourelis, K. 2003. Monuments of rural archaeology: Medieval settlements in the northwestern Peloponnese. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Kourelis, K. 2019. Wool and Rubble Walls: Domestic Archaeology in the Medieval Peloponnese. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 73: 407-427.

Kyriakopoulos, K. 1976 (ed.). Άγίου Πέτρου ἐπισκόπου Ἄργους, Βίος καὶ Λόγοι. Athens: Εκδόσεις Ιεράς Μητρόπολεως Αργολίδος.

Laiou, A.E. 2002. Exchange and trade, seventh to twelfth centuries, in A.E. Laiou. 2002 (ed.) The economic history of Byzantium from the seventh through the fifteenth century, Volume 2: 697-759. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Laiou, A.E. 2005. The Byzantine Village (5th-14th century), in J. Lefort, C. Morrisson and J.-P. Sodini (eds) Les Villages dans l’Empire byzantine, IVe-XVe siècle (Réalités byzantines 11): 31-54. Paris: Lethielleux.

Laiou, A.E. 2012. Regional Networks in the Balkans in the Middle and Late Byzantine Periods, in C. Morrisson (ed.) Trade and Markets in Byzantium (Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine symposia and colloquia): 125-146. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Laiou, A. and Morrisson C. 2007. The Byzantine economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lambropoulou, Α. 1988. Οι Πανηγύρεις στην Πελοπόννησο κατά τη Μεσαιωνική Εποχή, in Ch. Angelidi (ed.) Η καθημερινή ζωή στο Βυζάντιο, Πρακτικά Α΄ Διεθνούς Συμποσίου 15-17 Σεπτεμβρίου 1988: 291-310. Athens: Institute of Historical Research – Section of Byzantine Research/ National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Lambropoulou, A. 1994. Ο ασκητισμός στην Πελοπόννησο κατά τη μέση Βυζαντινή περίοδο. Athens: Goulandri-Horn Foundation.

Lambropoulou, A. and A. Moutzali 1992-1993. Nέα στοιχεία για την επισκοπή Κερνίτζας. Πελοποννησιακά Παράρτημα 19: 373-386

Lambropoulou, A., I. Anagnostakis, V. Konti and A. Panopoulou 2001. Συμβολή στην Ερμηνεία των Αρχαιολογικών τεκμηρίων της Πελοποννήσου κατά τους σκοτεινούς αιώνες, in E. Κοuntoura-Galaki (ed.) Οι Σκοτεινοί αιώνες του Βυζαντίου (7ος -9ος αι): 189-229. Athens: Institute of Historical Research – Section of Byzantine Research/ National Hellenic Research Foundation.

Lampsides, O. 1982. Ὁ ἐκ Πόντου Ὅσιος Νίκων ὁ Μετανοεῖτε. Κέιμενα-σχόλια (Πηγαί τής ιστορίας τών Ελλήνων τοϋ Πόντου 4, Παράρτημα 13). Athens: Eπιτροπή Ποντιακῶν Mελετῶν περιοδικοῦ «Ἀρχεῖον Πόντου».

Lampsides, O. 2004. Αποστολικός Κηρυγματικός Μοναχισμός (Η Δράση του Όσιου Νίκωνα του Μετανοείτε), in V. Konti (ed.) Ο Μοναχισμός στην Πελοπόννησο (4ος-15ος αι): 17-27. Athens: Institute of Historical Research / Section of Byzantine Research.

Lazaridis, P. 1973. Βυζαντινά και Μεσαιωνικά Μνημεία Πελοπόννησου- Nαύπλιον-Ανασκαφή εις Ακροναυπλίαν. Ἀρχαιολογικὸν Δελτίον 28.B1: 231-234.

Malamut, E. 1993. Sur la route des Saints byzantins. Paris: CNRS Éditions.

Mariolakos, I. and D. Mariolakos 2004. The Argon field in Arcadia, The sink-hole of Nestani village, God Poseidon and the submarine Dini springs in the Argolic Gulf (Peloponnisos, Greece). A geomythological approach of the Poseidon’s Birth, in Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, Proccedings of the 10th International Congress, Thessaloniki, April 2004, Volume 36: 1146-1153.

Matschke, K.-P. 2002. Commerce, Trade, Markets, and Money: Thirteenth-Fifteenth Centuries, in A.E. Laiou (ed.) The economic history of Byzantium from the seventh through the fifteenth century, Volume 2: 771-806. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

McCormick, M. 2001. Origins of the European Economy, Communications and Commerce, A.D. 300-900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McDonald, W.A., W.D.E. Coulson and J. Rosser 1983. Excavations at Nichoria in Southwest Greece, Dark Age and Byzantine Occupation, Volume 3. Minnesota: University of Minnesota.

Mee, C. and H. Forbes 1997. A rough and rocky place: The landscape and settlement history of the Methana peninsula, Greece (Liverpool Monographs in Archaeology and Oriental Studies). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press

Mexes D. 1977. Η Μάνη και οι Μανιάτες. Athens: Estia.

Mexia, Α. 2006. Ελαιοκομία στη Βυζαντινή Λακεδαιμόνα: Πηγές και Αρχαιολογικά Τεκμήρια. Λακωνικαὶ Σπουδαί 18: 205-223.

Moravcsik, G. and R.J.H. Jenkins (eds) 1967. Constantine Porphyrogenitus De administrando imperio. Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Moschos, T. and Moschou L. 1981. Παλαιομανιάτικα. Οι βυζαντινοί οικισμοί της Λακωνικής Μάνης. Athens Annals of Archaeology 14.1: 3-29.

Moschos, T. and Moschou L. 1982. The paleomaniatika: the transition from ancient polis to Byzantine chora. Ekistics 49: 261-270.

Moutsopoulos, N.K. and G. Dimitrokallis 1976-1978. Τα Μεγαλιθικά Μνημεία της Μάνης in Πρακτικά του Α΄ Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου Πελοποννησιακών Σπουδών, Σπάρτη, 7-14 Σεπτεμβρίου 1975, Volume 2. Πελοποννησιακά Παράρτημα 6.2: 135-169.

Nesbitt, J. and N. Oikonomides (eds) 1994. Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. Volume 2: South of the Balkans, the islands, South of Asia Minor. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Neville, L. 2004. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Niavis, P. 1984. The reign of the Byzantine Emperor, Nicephorus I (802–811). Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Edinburgh.

Nixon, L. 2006. Making a Landscape Sacred, Outlying Churches and Icon Stands in Sphakia, Southwestern Crete. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Nixon, L., S. Price, O. Rachham, J. Moody 2009. Settlement Patterns in Medieval and Post-Medieval Sphakia: Issues from Archaeological and Historical evidence, in J.L. Bintliff, and H. Stöger (eds) Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece. The Corfu Papers (British Archaeological Reports International Series 2023): 43-54. Oxford: Archaeopress.

ODB: Kazhdan A. P. (ed.) 1991. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 3 Volumes. New York/Oxford:

Oikonomou-Laniado, Α. 2003. Argos Paleochretienne. Contribution à l’étude du Peloponnese Byzantin. (British Archaeological Reports International Series 1173). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Oikonomou-Laniado, A. 2009. Το Άργος κατά τη μεσοβυζαντινή περίοδο, in I.D. Varalis and G.A. Pikoulas (eds) Μνήμη Τασούλας Οικονόμου (1998-2008): 205-214. Volos: Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας, Τμήμα ΙΑΚΑ και Δήμοι Αργείων και Μυκηναίων.

Papadaki, M. 2014a. Exploring ecclesiastical landscapes: Holy men in the Peloponnese during the Middle Byzantine period and their role in the formation of religious landscapes in the region, in M. Lau, C. Franchi and M. Di Rodi (eds) Landscapes of Power: 143-158. Bern: Peter Lang.

Papadaki, M. 2014b. The Peloponnese in Middle Byzantine Times. Archaeology and Topography of Rural Landscapes. Unpublished PhD dissertation, King’s College London.

Papadaki, M. 2015. Discovering the Byzantine countryside: the evidence from archaeological field survey in the Peloponnese, in Z. Theodoropoulou Polychroniadis and D. Evely (eds) Aegis, Essays in Mediterranean Archaeology: 201-209. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Penna, V., A. Lambropoulou and I. Anagnostakis 2008. Γλυπτά μεταβατικών χρόνων από τη Βασιλική του Θεάτρου της Αρχαίας Μεσσήνης, in Ch. Pennas and C. Vanderheyde (eds), La sculpture byzantine, VIIe-XIIe siècles Actes du colloque international organisé par la 2e Éphorie des antiquités byzantines et l’École française d’ Athènes, 6-8 Septembre 2000 (Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique Supplément 49): 375-392. Athens: École française d’ Athènes.

Raphael, N. 1973. Late Quaternary Changes in Coastal Elis, Greece. Geographical Review 63.1: 73-89.

Robbert, L.B. 1985. Venice and the Crusades, in K.M. Setton, N.P. Zakour and H.W. Hazard, A History of the Crusades, Volume 5, A History of the Crusades: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East: 379-451. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

Romano, R. 1974 (ed). Pseudo-Luciano, Timarione. Testo critico, introduzione, traduzione, commentario e lessico (Byzantina et neo-hellenica neapolitana 2). Naples: Università di Napoli. Cattedra di filologia bizantina.

Runnels, R.C. 1983. The Stanford University Archaeological and Environmental Survey of the Southern Argolid, Greece: 1979-1981, in R. Keller and D.W. Rupp (eds) Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area (British Archaeological Reports International Series 155): 261-264. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Runnels, C.N. and T.H. van Andel. 1987. The Evolution of Settlement in the Southern Argolid, Greece: An Economic Explanation. Hesperia 56.3: 303-334.

Seifried, R.M. and T. Kalayci 2019. An Exploratory Spatial Analysis of the Churches in the Southern Mani peninsula, Greece. Open Archaeology 5: 519-539.

Seifried, R.M. 2021. The Stone-Built Palaiomaniatika of the Mani peninsula, Greece, in R.M. Seifried and D.E. Brown Stewart (eds) Deserted Villages: Perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean: 153-205. North Dakota: The Digital Press at the University of North Dakota Grand Forks.

Seremetakis N.C., 1991. The Last Word: Women, Death, and Divination in Inner Mani. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Sgouritsas, A.G. 1956. Ὁ Λακεδαιμονίας Ἅγιος Θεόκλητος. Θεολογία 27: 567-593.

Shawcross T. 2011. The Lost Generation (c.1204-c.1222): Political Allegiance and Local Interests under the Impact of the Fourth Crusade, in J. Herrin and G. Saint-Guillain (eds) Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean after 1204: 9-45. Farnham: Ashgate.

Sigalos, E. 2004. Housing in Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece (British Archaeological Reports International Series 1291). Oxford: Archaeopress.

Stubbs, W. 1867 (ed.). Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis. The Chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II and Richard I AD 1169-1192. Known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough, 2 Volumes (Rerum Britannicarum medii ævi scriptores). London: Longman & Co.

Sullivan, D. 1987. The Life of Saint Nikon, Text, Translation and Commentary. Brookline, Massachusetts: Hellenic College Press.

Svoronos, N. 1959. Recherches sur le cadastre byzantin et la fiscalité aux XIe et XIIe siècles: Le cadastre de Thèbes. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 83: 1-145.

Sweetman, R. 2010. The Christianization of the Peloponnese: The Topography and Function of Late Antique Churches. Journal of Late Antiquity 3.2: 203-261.

Sweetman, R.J. 2015a. Memory, Tradition, and Christianization of the Peloponnese. American Journal of Archaeology 119.4: 501-531.

Sweetman, R., 2015b. The Christianisation of the Peloponnese: the case for strategic change. Annual of the British School at Athens 110.1: 285-319.

Sweetman, R., 2017. Networks and church building in the Aegean: Crete, Cyprus, Lycia and the Peloponnese. Annual of the British School at Athens 112: 207-266.

Traquair, R. 1908-1909. The Churches of Western Mani. Annual of the British School at Athens 15: 177-213.

Tsivikis, N. 2012. Considerations on Some Bronze Buckles from Byzantine Messene, in B. Böhlendorf-Arslan and A. Ricci (eds) Byzantine Small Finds in Archaeological Contexts (BYZAS 15): 61-80. Istanbul: Veröffentlichungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Istanbul.

Turner, S. and J. Crow 2019. The Christianization of island landscapes in Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages: New perspectives from Naxos in the Aegean, in M.A. Cau Ontiveros and C. Mas Florit (eds) Change and Resilience: The Occupation of Mediterranean Islands in Late Antiquity: 217-234. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Vachaviolos, D.Th. 2014. Η Ιστορία της Μητρόπολης Λακεδαιμονίας κατά τη Βυζαντινή περίοδο. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Ioannina.

Van Andel, T.H., C.N. Runnels and K.O. Pope 1986. Five Thousands Years of Land Use and Abuse in the Southern Argolid, Greece. Hesperia 55: 103-128.

Van Andel, T.H. and C.N. Runnels 1987. Beyond the Acropolis. A Rural Greek Past. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Vasilikopoulou, A. 1987-1988. Η εκκλησιαστική οργάνωση της Πελοποννήσου στη Βυζαντινή εποχή. Πελοποννησιακά Παράρτημα 13.2: 193-207.

Vassiliou, A. 2013. Argos from the ninth to fifteen centuries, in Heaven and Earth. Cities and Countryside in Byzantine Greece: 216-223. Athens: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports and the Benaki Museum.

Vionis, A.K. 2017a. Understanding settlements in Byzantine Greece: new data and approaches for Boeotia, Sixth to Thirteenth Century. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 71: 127-173.

Vionis, A.K. 2017b. Sacred Townscapes in Late Antique Greece: Christianisation and Economic Diversity in the Aegean. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 30.2: 141-165.

Vionis, A.K. 2017c. Imperial impacts, regional diversities and local responses: Island identities as reflected on Byzantine Naxos, in R. Murphey (ed.) Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule: 165-196. London-New York: Routledge.

Vionis, A.K. 2019. The Spatiality of the Byzantine/Medieval Rural Church: Landscape Parallels from the Aegean and Cyprus, in G. Papantoniou, C.E. Morris and A.K. Vionis (eds) Unlocking Sacred Landscapes: Spatial Analysis of Ritual and Cult in the Mediterranean: 67-83 (Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 151). Nicosia: Astrom Editions.

Vionis, A.K. 2020a. Landscape approaches to the evolution of the Byzantine/Medieval village-community in Greece. Journal of Greek Archaeology 5: 468-494.

Vionis, A.K. 2020b. Bridging the Early Medieval ‘ceramic gap’ in the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean (7th-9th c.): local and global phenomena. Herom 9: 291-326.

Wagstaff, J.M. 1974. Settlement in the Mani peninsula: A study in historical geography. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Southampton.

Wagstaff, J.M. 1982. The development of rural settlements: a study of the Helos Plain in Southern Greece. Amersham: Avebury.

Walter, Chr. 2003. The warrior saints in Byzantine art and tradition. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Weiberg, E., I. Unkel, K. Kouli, K. Holmgren, P. Avramidis, A. Bonnier, F. Dibble, M. Finné, A. Izdebski, C. Katrantsiotis, Sh.R. Stocker, M. Andwinge, K. Baika, M. Boyd and C. Heymann 2016. The socio-environmental history of the Peloponnese during the Holocene: Towards an integrated understanding of the past. Quaternary Science Reviews 136: 40-65.

Wells, B. and C. Runnels (eds) 1996. The Berbati-Limnes Archaeological Survey 1988-1990. (Skrifter utgivna av Svenska institutet i Athen 4o, Volume 44). Stockholm: Paul Astroms.

Wharton, A. 1988. Art of Empire, Painting and Architecture of the Byzantine Periphery. A Comparative Study of Four Provinces. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Wright, J.C., J.F. Cherry, J.L. Davis, E. Mantzourani, S.B. Sutton and R.F. Sutton 1990. The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project: A Preliminary report. Hesperia 59.4: 579-659.

Wortley J., 1996. The Spiritually Beneficial Tales of Paul, Bishop of Monembasia and of other authors, (Cistercian studies series; no. 159). Kalamazoo, Michigan: Cistercian Studies.

Xoplaki, E., D. Fleitmann, J. Luterbacher, S. Wagner, J.F. Haldon, E. Zorita, I. Telelis, A. Toreti, A. Izdebski 2016. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Byzantium: A review of evidence on climatic fluctuations, economic performance and societal change. Quaternary Science Reviews 136: 229-252.

Yannopoulos, P. 1993. Métropoles du Péloponnèse mésobyzantin: un souvenir des invasions avaro-slaves. Byzantion 63: 388-400.

Zangger, E. 1998. The Environmental Setting, in J.L. Davis (ed.) Sandy Pylos: An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino: 1-9. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Zangger, E., M.E. Timpson, S.B. Yazvenko, F. Kuhnke and J. Kanuss 1997. The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project. Part II: Landscape Evolution and Site Preservation. Hesperia 66.4: 549-641.

Published

09/12/2021

How to Cite

Papadaki, M. (2021). Church Construction as a Proxy for Economic Development: the Medieval Settlement Expansion Phase in the Peloponnese. Journal of Greek Archaeology, 6, 358–391. Retrieved from https://archaeopresspublishing.com/ojs/index.php/JGA/article/view/1051