Archaeological survey and understanding the rural landscape in Byzantine Greece: some specific examples
In a review of the second volume of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project Series, a significant contribution in the use of archaeological survey data to explore complex sociopolitical phenomena in the development of the medieval settlement pattern of the northeastern Peloponnese, Michael Given states the following: ‘This volume publishes valuable and interesting material on a period for which, even after some four decades of intensive archaeological survey, there is a striking lack of fully published survey results. This in itself is a major contribution, particularly when combined with the high quality of the original survey, the care with which the pottery and site descriptions are presented, the extensive historical background and the superb illustrations. The volume itself does not present a fully integrated archaeological, historical, and landscape analysis of this important material. Its real value, however, is that it allows us all to do our own integration and analysis.’ Our paper seeks to follow on from this final statement, and as such it wishes first to investigate some general considerations about survey archaeology in the broader world of the eastern Mediterranean, and to then examine more specifically the ways in which they are appropriate to the medieval period in ongoing research. Drawing from our own survey work in northern Kythera and the eastern Korinthia, we will attempt to demonstrate the limitations of an overarching diachronic approach to archaeological survey, and the need for continuous re-evaluation of a survey’s research design and methodology to the specific demands dictated by each different archaeological/historical period.
lcock, S. 1996. Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Antonaras, A., A. Bosselmann-Ruickbie and L. Ruickbie 2016. Arts, Crafts and Trades in Ancient and Byzantine Thessaloniki: Archaeological, Literary and Epigraphic Evidence. Mainz: Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums.
Armstrong, P. 1993. Byzantine Thebes: Excavations on the Kadmeia, 1980. London: British School at Athens.
Athanassopoulos, E.F. 2016. Landscape Archaeology and the Medieval Countryside (Nemea Valley Archaeological Project (Series) 2). Princeton: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
Bintliff, J.L. 2014. Intra-site artefact surveys in C. Corsi, B. Slapšak and F. Vermeulen (eds) Good Practice in Archaeological Diagnostics: Non-invasive Survey of Complex Archaeological Sites: 193-207. Switzerland: Springer.
Bintliff J.L. and A.M. Snodgrass 1985. The Cambridge/Bradford Boeotian Expedition: The First Four Years. Journal of Field Archaeology 12.2: 123-161.
Bintliff, J.L., P. Howard, et al. (eds) 2007. Testing the hinterland: The work of the Boeotia Survey (1989-1991) in the southern approaches to the city of Thespiai. Cambridge: MacDonald Institute Monographs, University of Cambridge.
Bintliff, J.L., E. Farinetti, et al. (eds) 2017. Boeotia Project, Volume II: The City of Thespiai. Survey at a Complex Urban Site. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs, University of Cambridge.
Bouras, Ch. 2018. Byzantine Athens, 10th-12th Centuries. Florence: Taylor & Francis Group.
Broodbank, C. 1999. Kythera Survey: Preliminary Report on the 1998 Season. The Annual of the British School at Athens 94: 191-214.
Caraher, W., R. Moore, D. Pettegrew, M. Andrioti, P. Kardulias, D. Nakassis and B. Olson 2014. Pyla-Koutsopetria I: Archaeological Survey of an Ancient Coastal Town (American Schools of Oriental Research Archaeological Reports 21). Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research.
Caraher, W.R. and D.K. Pettegrew forthcoming. Life in an Abandoned Village: The Case of Lakka Skoutara, in D. Brown and R. Seifried (eds) Deserted Villages: Perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean. Digital Press of the University of North Dakota.
Coroneos, C., L. Diacopoulos, T.E. Gregory, I. Johnson, J. Noller, S.A. Paspalas, and A. Wilson 2002. The Australian Paliochora-Kythera Archaeological Survey: Field Seasons 1999-2000. Mediterranean Archaeology 15:126-143.
Gerstel, S.E.J. 2013. Viewing the Morea: Land and People in the Late Medieval Peloponnese. Washington D.C: Dumbarton Oaks
Gerstel, S.E.J. 2015. Rural Lives and Landscapes in Late Byzantium: Art, Archaeology, and Ethnography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gerstel, S.E.J. 2016. Viewing Greece: Cultural and Political Agency in the Medieval and Early Modern Mediterranean. Belgium: Brepols.
Given, M. 2018. Review of ‘Landscape Archaeology and the Medieval Countryside’, by Effie F. Athanassopoulos. American Journal of Archaeology 122.1.
Given, M. and Knapp, A.B. 2003. The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project: Social Approaches to Regional Archaeological Survey (Monumenta Archaeologica 21). Los Angeles, CA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Given, M., A.B. Knapp, J. Noller, L. Sollars, and V. Kassianidou 2013a. Landscape and Interaction: The Troodos Archaeological and Environmental Survey Project, Cyprus. Volume 1: Methodology, Analysis and Interpretation (Levant supplementary series 14). London: Council for British Research in the Levant.
Given, M., A.B. Knapp, J. Noller, L. Sollars, and V. Kassianidou 2013b. Landscape and Interaction: The Troodos Archaeological and Environmental Research Project, Cyprus. Volume 2: The TAESP Landscape (Levant supplementary series 15). London: Council for British Research in the Levant.
Jameson, M.H, C.N Runnels, T.H. Van Andel, M.H. and Munn. 1994. A Greek Countryside: The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present Day. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Kaldellis, A. 2010. The Christian Parthenon: Classicism and Pilgrimage in Byzantine Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kalopissi-Verti, S. 2015. Monumental art in the lordship of Athens and Thebes under Frankish and Catalan rule (1212-1388): Latin and Greek patronage. Brill’s Companions to European History 6: 369-417.
Lock, G. and B.L. Molyneaux 2008. Confronting Scale in Archaeology: Issues of Theory and Practice. Springer.
Mayer, N. 2003. Pottery strategy and Chronotypes, in M. Given and A.B. Knapp (eds) The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project: Social Approaches to Regional Archaeological Survey (Monumenta Archaeologica 21): 14-16. Los Angeles, CA: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Maffry Talbot, A.-M. and Spieser, J.-M. 2004. Symposium on Late Byzantine Thessalonike. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.
Mee, C. and H.A. Forbes1997. A Rough and Rocky Place: The Landscape and Settlement History of the Methana Peninsula, Greece: Results of the Methana Survey Project, Sponsored by the British School at Athens and the University of Liverpool. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Moore, S. 2008. A Decade Later: The Chronotype System Revisited, in W. Caraher, L.J. Hall, and R.S. Moore (eds) Archaeology and History in Roman, Medieval and Post-Medieval Greece: Studies on Method and Meaning in Honor of Timothy E. Gregory: 137-151. Ashgate.
Orton, C. 2000. Sampling in Archaeology (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pettegrew, D. 2016. The Isthmus of Corinth: Crossroads of the Mediterranean World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Redman, C. 1987. Surface Collection, Sampling, and Research Design: A Retrospective. American Antiquity 52.2: 249-265.
Scranton, R. 1957. Mediaeval Architecture in the Central Area of Corinth. Princeton, N.J.: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
Tartaron, T. 2003. The Archaeological Survey: Sampling Strategies and Field Methods, in J. Wiseman and K. Zachos (eds) Landscape Archaeology in Southern Epirus, Greece I (Hesperia Supplement 32): 23-45. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
Tartaron, T.F., T.E. Gregory, D.J. Pullen, J.S. Noller, R.M. Rothaus, J.L. Rife, L. Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, R. Schon, W.R. Caraher, D.K. Pettegrew and D. Nakassis 2006. The Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey: Integrated Methods for a Dynamic Landscape. Hesperia 75.4: 453–523.
Tartaron, T.F., D.J. Pullen, R.K. Dunn, L. Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, A. Dill, and J.I. Boyce 2011. The Saronic Harbors Archaeological Research Project (SHARP): Investigations at Mycenaean Kalamianos, 2007-2009, Hesperia 80.4: 559-634.
Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, L. 2010. Remembering and Forgetting: The Relationship between Memory and the Abandonment of Graves in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Greek Cemeteries. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 285-301.
Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, L. and T.E. Gregory 2017. The Karavas Water Project: An Archaeological and Environmental Study of Interaction and Community in Northern Kythera. Journal of Greek Archaeology 2: 339-373.
Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, L. and T.E. Gregory forthcoming. Paliochora and Georgadika in Kythera: Abandoned Settlements in a Historically Abandoned Environment, in D. Brown and R. Seifried (eds) Deserted Villages: Perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean. Digital Press of the University of North Dakota.
Williams, C.K. 2003. Frankish Corinth: An Overview, in C.K. Williams and N. Bookidis (eds) Corinth, The Centenary 1896-1996. Corinth vol. 20: 423-434. Princeton, N.J.: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.