Heritage Management. The Natural and Cultural Divide


  • Heleen van Londen University of Amsterdam - ACASA Department of Archaeology
  • Marjo Schlaman University of Amsterdam - ACASA Department of Archaeology
  • Arkadiusz Marciniak Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań




Heritage Management


In 2005, David Lowenthal commented on the dissimilar approaches to natural and cultural heritage and how these differences impact the protection and management of these heritages. His analysis touches on the western European perceptions of nature and culture that go back to the Age of Enlightenment. In his article, the motivation for safeguarding heritage stands out, as nature conservationists emphasize the long-term economic or ecological benefits, while cultural heritage managers point towards cultural or aesthetic benefits (Lowenthal 2005: 87). Others have made similar statements, some eight years later, calling the divide between the domains a fundamental error (Renes 2013; Harrison 2013).


Bleumink, H & J. Neefjes, 2017. Handboek Beken en Erfgoed. Beeklandschappen met karakter. Stichting Toegepast Onderzoek Waterbeheer in samenwerking met de Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.

Bloemers, J.H.F., Kars, H., van der Valk, A., & Wijnen, M., (eds), 2010, The cultural landscape & heritage paradox: protection and development of the Dutch archaeological-historical landscape and its European dimension. (Landscape & heritage series). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789089641557

Byrne, D., 2008. Heritage as social action, in: G. Fairclough Et Al. (eds), The heritage reader. London: Routledge, 149-173.

Cost Landmarks 2005. Accessed 6 October 2019. https://www.cost.eu/publications/costaction-a27b-landmarks/

Council of Europe Landscape Convention 2000. Accessed 11 June 2019. https://www.coe.int/en/web/landscape

Council of Europe 2015, High-level Conference on the "Implementation of the European Convention on Human Rights, our shared responsibility, at the initiative of the Belgian Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, 27 March 2015.

Council of Europe Landscape Convention 2019. Accessed 11 June 2019, https://www.coe.int/en/web/landscape/home.

Dolff - Bonekämper, G., 2010. Cultural Heritage and Conflict: the view from Europe, in Museum International 62 (1-2), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0033.2010.01713.x

Fairclough, G., & van Londen, H., 2010. Changing landscapes of archaeology and heritage, in: T. Bloemers, H. Kars, A. van der Valk, & M. Wijnen (eds), The cultural landscape & heritage paradox: protection and development of the Dutch archaeological-historical landscape and its European dimension. (Landscape & heritage series). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 653-669. https://doi.org/10.1515/9789048510962-044

Frodeman, R., Klein, J. T., & Mitcham, C., (eds), 2010. The Oxford handbook of interdisciplinarity. Oxford. Hodder, I., 2010. Cultural Heritage Rights: From Ownership and Descent to Justice and Well-being.

Anthropological Quarterly 83, no. 4: 861-882. Accessed July 11, 2018. https://muse.jhu.edu/.

Holtorf, C., 2007. Can You Hear Me at the Back? Archaeology, Communication and Society. European Journal of Archaeology, 10 (2-3): 149-165. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461957108095982

ICOMOS, 1994, The Nara document on Authenticity. Accessed October 29, 2019. https://www.icomos.org/charters/nara-e.pdf.

Klein, J. T., 2010. A taxonomy of interdisciplinarity. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity, 15-30.

Jokilehto, J., 2012. Human rights and cultural heritage. Observations on the recognition of human rights in the international doctrine. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 18:3, 226-230, https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2012.651741

Labadi, S., 2013. UNESCO, cultural heritage and outstanding universal values. value-based analyses of the World Heritage and Intangible Cultural Heritage Conventions. Latham: Alta Mira Press.

Leitão, L., Bourdin, G., Badman, T. & Wigboldus, L., 2017. Connecting Practice Phase II: Final Report. Project Report. ICOMOS/IUCN.

Logan, W., 2012. Cultural diversity, cultural heritage and human rights: towards heritage management as human rights-based cultural practice. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 18:3, 231-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2011.637573

Londen, H. van, 2004. Cultural biography and the power of image, in: W. van der Knaap & A. van der Valk (eds), Multiple Landscape, merging past and present, Wageningen University, 171-181.

Londen, H. van, 2016. Archaeological Heritage Education and the Making of Regional Identities', in C. Boxtel, M. Grever & S. Klein (eds), Sensitive Pasts. Questioning Heritage in Education. Berghahn Books, 153-170. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvss40kr.12

Lowenthal, D., 2005. Natural and cultural heritage, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 11:1, 81-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527250500037088

Maus, S., 2014. Hand in hand against climate change: cultural human rights and the protection of cultural heritage. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 27:4, 699-716. https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2014.960811

Raap, E., 2015. Visie Erfgoed en Ruimte, programmalijn Levend Landschap. Amersfoort: Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.

Renes, J., 2013. Natuur en landschap op zoek naar een nieuw verbond, printed paper 12.06.2013. OHCHR, 2016. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment: Climate Change Report (February 1, 2016), United Nations Human Rights Council, A/HRC/31/52.

Pinxten, R., Cornelis, M. & Rubinstein, R. A., 2007. European Identity: Diversity in Union, International Journal of Public Administration, 30:6-7, 687-698. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900690701216092

Prieur, M., 2006.Landscape and social, economic, cultural and ecological approaches, preamble to the convention, Council of Europe, Landscape and sustainable development: challenges of the European Landscape Convention, 15. https://rm.coe.int/16804895e6.

Pyburn, K., 2007. Archaeology as Activism, in: H. Silverman and D. F. Ruggles (eds) Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. Springer, 172-183. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-71313-7_10

Sen, A., 1985. Commodities and Capabilities. Amsterdam.

Sen, A., 1999. Development as freedom (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Teaching Heritage 2017. Accessed 29 October 2019. http://e-archaeology.org/teachingheritage/

Tress, B., Tress, G., van der Valk, A. & Fry, G., (eds), 2003. Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Landscape Studies: Potential and Limitations. Wageningen: Wageningen University. Silverman, H. & Ruggles, D. F., (eds), 2007. Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. Springer.

UNESCO, 1972, Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, World Heritage Centre.

UNESCO, 2019, The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, World Heritage Centre. Accessed 6-12-2019. http://whc.unesco.org/en/guidelines/

Wells, J.C., 2014. A Methodological Framework for Assessing the 'Spirit and Feeling' of World Heritage Properties, in: T. Gensheimer & C.L. Guichard (eds) World Heritage and National Registers. Stewardship in Perspective, New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers, 19-33.




How to Cite

van Londen, H., Schlaman, M., & Marciniak, A. (2019). Heritage Management. The Natural and Cultural Divide. Ex Novo: Journal of Archaeology, 4, 3–12. https://doi.org/10.32028/exnovo.v4i0.366

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.