The bronze belts of the South Caucasus: through object to context

Authors

  • Sona Manukyan

Keywords:

South Caucasus, Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, bronze belts, archaeological context, cluster analysis

Abstract

The present paper discusses the archaeological context of the Late Bronze and Iron Age bronze belts of the South Caucasus. The previous studies (19th-20th centuries) were mainly focused on the interpretation of the ornaments and function of the belts, whereas no fundamental and comprehensive study of the context has been done yet, which keeps our understanding of the belts limited. This research aims to fill this gap by conducting cluster analysis of the graves in the necropoleis of Akhtala, Karmir Berd, Mastara, Musi-yeri, Shirakavan, Talin (Republic of Armenia), Beshtasheni, Krasnamayatsk, Narekvavi, Samtavro, Tli (Republic of Georgia), Kalakend, and Kalakend Paradiesfestung (Republic of Azerbaijan).

References

Abramishvili, R.M. 1961. K voprosu ob osvoenii železa na teritorii Vostočnoy Gruzii (14-11 vv. do n. é.) /(On the Question of mastering Iron Production in the territory of Eastern Georgia (14-11th centuries BC)/). Vestnik Gosudarstvennogo Muzeja Gruzii 22-B: 291-382 (in Russian).

Akhvlediani, N.I. 2001. On the Dating of Burial N 13 in the Beshtasheni Burial-Ground. ACSS 7/3: 273-285.

Aleoshkin, V.A. 1986. Social’naja struktura i pogrebal’nyj obrjad drevnezemledel’českix obščestv (The Social Structure and Funeral Rite of the Early Agricultural Societies). Leningrad (in Russian).

Apakidze, A.M. (ed.) 1999. Mtskheta 1998. Tbilisi.

Apakidze, A.M. (ed.) 2000. Mtskheta 1999. Tbilisi.

Apakidze, A.M., Nikolashvili, V.V., Kipiani, G.G., Sikharuladze, A.N., Ginuashvili, G.D., Gavasheli, E.I., Glonti, N.V., Kapanadze, M.A. 1999. Narekvavi I, in: Apakidze 1999: 5-145.

Apakidze, A.M., Nikolashvili, V.V., Kipiani, G.G., Sikharuladze, A.N., Ginuashvili, G.D., Gavasheli, E.I., Glonti, N.V., Kapanadze, M.A. 2000. Narekvavi II, in: Apakidze 2000: 3-103.

Avetisyan, A.G., Avetisyan, P.S. 2006. Araratyan dašti mšakuyt‘ə m.t‘.a. XI-VI darerum (The Culture of the Ararat Valley in the 11th-6th centuries BC). Yerevan (in Armenian).

Avetyan, V.V. 2003. Sevani avazani mšakuyt‘ə m.t‘.a. III-II hazaramyaknerum (əst Lčašeni nyut‘eri) /(The Culture of Sevan Basin in the 3rd-2nd Milleniums BC (Acording to the Archeological Material of Lchashen). Yerevan (in Armenian).

Badalyan, R.S., Avetisyan, P.S. 2007. Bronze and Early Iron Age Archaeological Sites in Armenia. I. Mt. Aragats and its Surrounding Region. Oxford.

Badalyan, R.S., Smith, A.T., Lindsay, I.C., Khatchadourian, L.B., Avetisyan, P.S., with appendices by Monahan, B. and Hovsepyan, R. 2008. Village, Fortress, and Town in Bronze and Iron Age Southern Caucasia: A Preliminary Report on the 2003–2006 Investigations of Project ArAGATS on the Tsaghkahovit Plain, Republic of Armenia. AMIT 46: 45-105.

Bayern, F. 1882. Contribution à l’archéologie Caucase. Lyon.

Bayern, F. 1885. Gräberfeld bei Djelaloglu in Transkaukasien, VBGA 17: 329-330.

Biyagov, L.N, Piliposyan, A.S. 1982. Tradicija izgatovlenija bronzovyx pojasov v rannem železnom veke Armenii (The tradition of manufacturing bronze belts in the Early Iron Age Armenia), in: Kul’turnyj progress v époxu pozdnej bronzy i rannego železa (Cultural progress of the Bronze and Iron era), Tezisy dokladov Vsesojuznogo simpoziuma posvjaščennogo 60-letiju obrazovanija SSSR (Abstracts of reports of the All-Union Symposium on the 60th anniversary of the USSR founding). Yerevan: 137-139 (in Russian).

Castelluccia, M.S. 2017. Transcaucasian Bronze Belts. Oxford.

Chidasheli, M.S. 1986. Die Gürtelbleche der älteren Eisenzeit in Georgien. BAVA 8: 7-72.

Chubanishvili, T.N. 1952. Drevnejšie gruntovye pogrebenija Samtavrskogo mogil’nika (The Earliest Pit-Burials of the Samtavro Burial-Ground). KSIA 46: 54-62 (in Russian).

Davlinidze, R.V. 1985. Narekvavskij mogil’nik (The Narekvavi Burial-Ground), inL Djavakhishvili 1985: 6-42 (in Georgian).

Djavakhishvili, A. (ed.) 1985. Mcxeta VII. Tbilisi.

Farmakovskij, B.V. 1914. Arhaičeskij period v Rossii (The Archaic Period in Russia), in: Materialy po arxeologii Rossii Imperatorskij Arxeologičeskoj kamissii (Materials on the Archaeology of Russia from Imperial Archaeological Commission) 34. Doklady čitannye na Londonskom meždunarodnom kongresse istorikov (Reports of the International Congress of Historians in London), March 1913. Petrograd: 15-78 (in Russian).

Fedorov-Dadidov, G.A. 1987. Statističeskie metody v arxeologii (The Statistical Methods in Archaeology). Moscow (in Russian).

Gening, V.F., Bunyatyan, E.P., Pustovalov, S.J., Rychkov, N.А. 1990. Formalizovanno-statističeskie metody v arxeologii (Analiz pogrebal’nyx pamjatnikov) /(The Formalized-Statistical Methods in Archaeology (The Analysis of Burial Sites)/). Kiev (in Russian).

Hodder, I.R., Hutson, S.R. 2003. Reading the Past, Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology (Third Edition). Cambridge.

Hodder, I.R. 2005. Theory and Practice in Archaeology, Material Cultures. London – New York.

Israyelyan, H.R. 1973. Paštamunk‘n u havatalik‘ə uš bronzedaryan Hayastanum (The Worship and Beliefs in Late Bronze Age Armenia). Yerevan (in Armenian).

Ivanovskij, A.A. 1911. Po Zakavkaz’ju (Through Transcaucasia). Arxeologičeskie nabljudenija i issledovanija 1893, 1894 I 1896 godov (Archaeological Observations and Studies of 1893, 1894 and 1896) /(Materialy po arxeologii Kavkaza (Materials on the Archaeology of the Caucasus), vol. VI). Moscow.

Kalandadze, A.N. 1980. Samtavro. Arxelogičeskie pamjatniki doantičnyx vremen (Archaeological Sites of Pre-Antique Times) /(Mtskheta: Results of Archaeological research, vol. IV)/. Tbilisi (in Georgian with Russian summary).

Kuftin, B.A. 1941. Arxeologičeskie raskopki v Trialeti (Archaeological Excavations in Trialeti). Tbilisi (in Russian).

Kushnareva, K.Kh. 1951. Kul’tura Nagornogo Karabaxa po arxeologičeskim istočnikam (konec III tys. – seredina I tys. do n. é.): disertacija (The Culture of the Mountainous Karabakh Through Archaeological Sources (the end of the III mill. – the middle of I mill. BC)/): Ph.D. dissertation. Leningrad (in Russian).

Lalayan, Y.A. 1931. Dambanneri pełumner Xorhrdayin Hayastanum (The Excavations of Tombs in Soviet Armenia). Yerevan (in Armenian).

Martirosyan, A.A. 1964. Armenija v époxu bronzy i rannego železa (Armenia in the Bronze and Early Iron Ages). Yerevan (in Russian).

Morgan, J. De 1889. Mission Scientifique au Caucase I, vol. 1. Les premiers ages des metaux dans l’Armenie Russe. Paris.

Nagel, W. Strommenger, E. 1985. Kalakent Früheisenzeitliche Grabfunde aus dem Transkaukasischen Gebiet von Kirovabad/Jelisavetopol. Berlin.

Narimanishvili, D.G. 2014. The Results of Beshtasheni Archaeological Expedition of 2012-2014. Museum and Cultural Heritage I: 65-70.

Narimanishvili, D.G., Karalidze, G., Hamburg, J.-K. 2015. New Data from Beshtasheni Late Bronze Age – Early Iron Age Cemetery, in: Piliposyan 2015: 104-116.

Narimanishvili, D.G., Vadachkoria, R., Tamazashvili, K., Juszczyk, K., Tomczyk, W. 2017. Archaeological Excavations at Beshtasheni Late Bronze Age - Early Iron Age Cemetery (2015-2016 results). AJNES 11/1-2: 120-144.

Piliposyan, A. (ed.) 2015. Mecamor. Pełumneri hisun tari (Metsamor. The Chronicle of Fifty Years of Excavations). Yerevan.

Piotrovskij, B.B. 1949. Arxeologija Zakavkaz’ja s drevnejšix vremen do I tysjačeletija do n.é. (The Archaeology of Transcaucasia from Earliest Times to 1st millenium BC). Leningrad (in Russian).

Pogrebova, M.N., Raevskij D.S. 1997. Zakavkazskie bronzovye pojasa s gravirovannymi izobraženijami (The Transcaucasian Bronze Belts with Insized Depiction). Moscow (in Russian).

Resler, E.А. 1904. Arxeologičeskie issledovanija É.A. Reslera v Elizavetpol’skoj gubernii v 1901 (The Archaeological Accounts of E. A. Ryosler in the Elizavetpol Governorate in 1901). Izvestija Imperatorskoj Arxeologičeskoj Kammissii (The Harald of the Imperial Archaeological Commission) 12: 40-60 (in Russian).

Rova, E., Tonussi, E. (eds) 2017. Proceedings of the International Humboldt-Kolleg Venice, January 9th-January 12th, 2013 (Subartu 38). Brepols.

Samuelyan, X.S. 1941. Hin Hayastani kulturan (The Culture of Ancient Armenia), vol. 2. Yerevan (in Armenian).

Sulava, N. 2006a. Kavkasis fibulebi (The Caucasian Fibulae (Typology, Chronology, Genesis)/), Ph.D. dissertation. Tbilisi (in Georgian).

Sulava, N. 2006b. Kavkasis fibulebi (The Caucasian Fibulae (Typology, Chronology, Genesis)), Ph.D. dissertation, vol. 2. Tbilisi (in Georgian).

Tekhov B.V. 1957. Pozdnebronzovaja kul’tura Liaxvskogo bassejna (Drevnij mogil’nik v s. Tli) /(The Late Bronze Age Culture of the Liakhva Basin (The Ancient Cemetery of Tli)/). Stalinir (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1960. Mogil’niki époxi pozdnej bronzy v sele Tli (The Graves of the Late Bronze Age in the Village of Tli). SA 1: 163-178 (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1964. Bronzovye pojasa Central’nogo Kavkaza (Bronze belts from Central Caucasus). Izvestija Jugo-Osetinskogo naučno-issledovatel’skogo Instituta Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoj SSR (Reports of South Ossetian Scientific-Research Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR) 13: 216-299 (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1971. Očerki drevnej istorii i arxeologii Jugo-Osetii (The Outlines of the Ancient History and Archaeology of South Osetia). Tbilisi (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1977. Central’nyj Kavkaz v XVI-X vv. do n.é. (Central Caucasus in XVI-X centuries BC). Moscow (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1980a. Tlijskij mogil’nik (v XVI-X vv. do n.é.) /(The Cemetery of Tli 1: Complexes Dating from the 16th to the 10th Centuries BC)/). Tbilisi (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1980b. Skify i Central’nyj Kavkaz v VII-VI vv. do n. é. (The Scythes and the Central Caucasus in VII-VI centuries BC). Moscow (in Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1981. Tlijskij mogil’nik II (kompleksy IX – pervoj poloviny VII v. do n. é.) /(The Cemetery of Tli 2 (Complexes Dating from the 9th to the First Half of 7th Centuries BC)/). Tbilisi (In Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 1985. Tlijskij mogil’nik III (kompleksy vtoroj poloviny VII – VI vv. do n. é.) /(The Cemetery of Tli 3 (Complexes Dating from the Second Half of 7th to the 6th Centuries BC)/). Tbilisi (In Russian).

Tekhov, B.V. 2002. Tajny drevnix pogrebenij (arxeologija, istorija, étnografija) /(The Secrets of the Ancient Burials (Archaeology, History, Ethnography)/). Vladikavkaz (in Russian).

Torosyan, R.M., Xnkikyan, O.S., Petrosyan, L.A. 2002. Hin Širakavan (Ancient Shirakavan). 1977-1981 tvakanneri pełumneri ardyunk‘nerə) /(The Results 1977-1981 Excavations)/). Yerevan (in Armenian).

Trapsh, M.M. 1969. Drevnij Suxumi (Ancient Sukhumi). Sukhumi (in Russian).

Trapsh, M.M. 1970. Pamjatniki époxi bronzy i rannego železa (The Archaeological Sites of the Bronze and Iron Ages). Sukhumi (in Russian).

Urušadze, N.E. 1984. Bronzovaja letopis’ drevnej Gruzii (The Bronze Age Chronicles of Ancient Georgia). Tbilisi (in Russian).

Virchov, R. 1895. Über die culturgeschichtliche Stellung des Kaukasus unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der ornamentierten Bronzegürtel aus transkaukasischen Gräbern. Berlin.

Virxov, R. 1896. Kovkasi tełə k‘ałak‘akrt‘ut‘yan patmut‘yan meǰ (The Place of Caucasus in the History of Civilization). Azgagrakan handes (The Ethnographical Journal), Book A: 50-116 (in Armenian).

Xnkikjan, O.S 1993. Raskopki v sele Nerkin Getašen i vopros pojavlenija železa v Armenii (Exacavations in the Village Nerqin Getashen and the Question of Iron Appearance in Armenia). LHG 3: 107-114 (in Russian).

Yesayan, S.A. 1962. Zaščitnoe vooruženie v Drevnej Armenii (Armor Armament in Ancient Armenia). PBH 1: 192-209 (in Russian).

Yesayan, S.A. 1986. Dospex Drevnej Armenii (The Armor of Ancient Armenia). Yerevan (in Russian).

Yesayan, S.A. 1967. Katalog Yerevan k‘ałak‘i hnagitakan ireri (The Catalogue of the Artefacts of the History Museum of Yerevan City), vol. 2. Yerevan (in Armenian).

Yesayan, S.A. 1972. Katalog Yerevan k‘ałak‘i hnagitakan ireri (The Catalogue of the Artefacts of the History Museum of Yerevan City), vol. 3. Yerevan (in Armenian).

Yesayan, S.A 1984. Gürtelbleche der älteren Eisenzeit in Armenien. BAVA 6: 97-198.

Zischow, A. 2017. South Caucasian Bronze Belts in Context, in: Rova, Tonussi 2017: 411-426.

Published

01/01/2020

How to Cite

Manukyan, S. (2020). The bronze belts of the South Caucasus: through object to context. ARAMAZD: Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 14(1-2), 97–112. Retrieved from http://archaeopresspublishing.com/ojs/index.php/aramazd/article/view/976