Entia non multiplicanda: the case of Hittite suwaru


  • Jaan Puhvel


Hittite lexicon, semantic antonymy, ‘Occam’s razor’


Hittite suwaru is usually taken as two unrelated homophones, an adjective-adverb ‘full(y)’ and an obscure noun denoting a ritually used vegetal substance. Author has since 1981 argued for unitary suwaru ‘heavy’ cognate with Lithuanian svarùs. All occurrences are explained by a proto-meaning ‘heavy, dense, solid’ in antonymy to ‘fluid, liquid’. Communis opinio is a needless breach of Occamic principle.


Puhvel, J. 1981. The Meaning and Source of Hittite šuwaru. JAOS 101/2: 213-214.

Puhvel, J. 1984ff. Hittite Etymological Dictionary. Berlin – New York.

Puhvel, J. 2002. Epilecta Indoeuropaea: Opuscula selecta annis 1978-2001 excusa imprimis ad res Anatolicas attinentia (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 104). Innsbruck.

Puhvel, J. 2012. Ultima Indoeuropaea (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 143). Innsbruck.

Tischler, J.L. 2006. Hethitisches etymologisches Glossar, Teil II/2, Lieferung 14: S/2 (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 20). Innsbruck.



How to Cite

Puhvel, J. (2020). Entia non multiplicanda: the case of Hittite suwaru. ARAMAZD: Armenian Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 14(1-2), 60–62. Retrieved from http://archaeopresspublishing.com/ojs/index.php/aramazd/article/view/972