Langurs in the Aegean Bronze Age? A Review of a Recent Debate on Archaeoprimatology and Animal Identification in Ancient Iconography


  • Julia Binnberg
  • Bernardo Urbani
  • Dionisios Youlatos


Archaeoprimatology, Ancient Iconography, Animal Identification


Recently, an article was published in the journal Primates, in which an interdisciplinary team consisting of primatologists, a taxonomic illustrator, and an art historian/archaeologist suggested a new identification of the monkeys depicted in a wall painting from Room 6 of Building Complex Beta in the Bronze Age town of Akrotiri on the Cycladic island of Thera. Briefly summarised, Pareja et al. argued that the monkeys represented are to be identified as grey or Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus spp.), a monkey genus native to the Indian subcontinent. With this, they diverged from the traditional identification as green monkeys/vervets/grivets of the genus Chlorocebus from Africa. It was claimed that the new identification as langurs provides (further) evidence for links between the Aegean and the Indus River Valley during the Bronze Age, with Mesopotamia as a likely intermediary region. According to the authors, the Cycladic artists could have seen langurs on their travels, and monkey iconography could have reached the Aegean via objects originating from these regions.


Ashley-Montangu, M.F. 1940. Knowledge of the ape in antiquity. Isis 32: 87–102.

Atran, S. 1987. Origins of the species and genus concept. Journal of the History of Biology 20.2: 195–279.

Atran, S. 1998. Folk biology and the anthropology of science: cognitive universals and cultural particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21.4: 547–609.

Baleka, S. 2019. Palaeogenetic analyses of extinct Elephantidae from temperate and subtropical climates. PhD dissertation, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.

Baleka, S., D.S. Reese and M. Hofreiter 2016. Preliminary Results of the Genetic Analysis of a Bronze Age Elephant Tusk, in C. von Rüden, A. Georgiou, A. Jacobs and P. Halstead (eds) Feasting, Craft and Depositional Practice in Late Bronze Age Palaepaphos: 369–373. Rahden/Westfalen: Verlag Marie Leidorf.

Barnett, R.D. 1973. Monkey business. Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia 5: 1–5.

Barrett, C. E. 2009. The Perceived Value of Minoan and Minoanizing Pottery in Egypt. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 22: 211–234.

Berlin, B. 1992. Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bernstein, P.L., W.J. Smith, A. Krensky and K. Rosene 1978. Tail positions of Cercopithecus aethiops. Ethology 46: 268–278.

Binnberg, J. 2017. Animal identification in iconography: an interdisciplinary approach combining zoology, anthropology and archaeology, in R. O’Sullivan, C. Marini and J. Binnberg (eds) Interaction, Integration & Division: Archaeological Approaches to Breaking Boundaries. Proceedings of the Graduate Archaeology of Oxford (GAO) conferences 2015–16: 279–289. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.

Binnberg, J. 2019. Like a duck to water – birds and liquids in the Aegean Bronze Age. Annual of the British School at Athens 114: 41–78.

Binnberg, J. 2021. Metamorphosis, transformation, and regeneration – butterflies, bees, and beetles in the Aegean Bronze Age. Journal of Prehistoric Religion 27: in press

Blakolmer, F. 2020. Gab es Löwen und Affen im minoischen Kreta? Ein ikonographisches Problem, in L. Berger, L. Huber, F. Lang and J. Weilhartner (eds) Akten des 17. Österreichischen Archäologentages am Fachbereich Altertumswissenschaften, Klassische und Frühägäische Archäologie der Universität Salzburg vom 26. bis 28. Februar 2018: 39–49. Salzburg: Universität Salzburg.

Cameron, M.A.S. 1968. Unpublished paintings from the ‘House of the Frescoes’ at Knossos. Annual of the British School at Athens 63: 1–31.

Canciani, F. 1973. Scimmie a Creta, in Antichità Cretesi: Studi in onore di Doro Levi 1 (Chronache di Archeologia 12): 107–110.

Chapin, A. and M.N. Pareja 2020. Peacock or poppycock? Investigations into exotic animal imagery in Minoan and Cycladic art, in B. Davis and R. Laffineur (eds) NEΩTEΡOΣ – Studies in Bronze Age Aegean Art and Archaeology in Honor of Professor John G. Younger on the Occasion of his Retirement (Aegaeum 44): 215–226, Leuven: Peeters.

Chapin, A. and M.N. Pareja 2021. Betwixt and beyond the boundaries: an ecosocial model of animal-human relations in Minoan and Cycladic animal art, in R. Laffineur and T. Palaima (eds) Zoia – Animal-Human Interactions in the Aegean Middle and Late Bronze Age (Aegaeum 45): 125–134, Leuven: Peeters.

Clarkson, C., M. Petraglia, R. Korisettar, M. Haslam and N. Boivin 2009. The oldest and longest enduring microlithic sequence in India: 35 000 years of modern human occupation and change at the Jwalapuram Locality 9 rockshelter. Antiquity 83: 326–348.

Cline, E.H. 1991. Monkey business in the Bronze Age Aegean: the Amenhotep II faience figurines at Mycenae and Tiryns. Annual of the British School at Athens 86: 29–42.

Cline, E.H. 1994. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean. Oxford: Hadrian Books Ltd.

Davaras, C. 2003. Parallels and Affinities between Crete and India in the Bronze Age: Some Speculations. Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert.

Davaras, C. and J. Soles 1997. A new Oriental cylinder seal from Mochlos. Archaiologike Ephemeris 134 (1995): 29–66.

Dominy, N.J., S. Ikram, G.L. Moritz, P.V. Wheatley, J.N. Christensen, J.W. Chipma and P.L. Koch 2020. Mummified baboons reveal the far reach of early Egyptian mariners. eLife 9: 60860.

Dore, K.M., E.P. Riley and A. Fuentes (eds) 2017. Ethnoprimatology: A Practical Guide to Research at the Human-Nonhuman Primate Interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Doumas, C. 1992. The Wall-paintings of Thera. Athens: The Thera Foundation.

Dunham, S. 1985. The monkey in the middle. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie 75: 234–264.

Evans, A. 1921. The Palace of Minos (Volume I). London: Macmillan.

Evans, A. 1928. The Palace of Minos (Volume II.2). London: Macmillan.

Fitton, J.L. (ed.) 2009. The Aigina Treasure. Aegean Bronze Age Jewellery and a Mystery Revisited. London: British Museum Press.

Gill, M.A.V. 1985. Some observations on representations of marine animals in Minoan art, and their identification, in P. Darcque and J.-C. Poursat (eds) L’Iconographie minoenne. Actes de la table ronde d’Athènes (21-22 avril 1983): 63–81. Athens, Paris: Diffusion de Boccard.

Goyal, P. and P.P. Joglekar 2008. Report on the faunal remains recovered from Kanmer, Gujarat, during the second field season (2006-07), in T. Osada (ed.) Linguistic, Archaeology and the Human Past: Occasional Paper 5: 25–43. Kyoto: RIHN.

Goyal, P., A.K. Pokharia, J.S. Kharakwal, P.P. Joglekar, Y.S. Rawat and T. Osada 2013. Subsistence system, paleoecology, and 14c chronology at Kanmer, a Harappan site in Gujarat, India. Radiocarbon 55: 141–150.

Greenlaw, C. 2005. How monkeys evolved in Egyptian and Minoan art and culture, in C. Briault, J. Green, A. Kaldelis and A. Stellatou (eds) SOMA 2003 ­Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology: 71–73. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Greenlaw, C. 2006. Monkeying around the Mediterranean: a fresh perspective on ancient primates, in J. Day, C. Greenlaw, H. Hall, A. Kelly, L. Matassa, K. McAleese, E. Saunders and D. Stritch (eds) SOMA 2004 ­Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology: 63–67. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Greenlaw, C. 2011. The Representation of Monkeys in the Art and Thought of Mediterranean Cultures. A New Perspective on Ancient Primates. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Groenewegen-Frankfort, H. 1951. Arrest and Movement. An Essay on Space and Time in the Representational Art of the Ancient Near East. London: Faber and Faber.

Groves, C. 2008. Extended Family, Long Lost Cousins: A Personal Look at the History of Primatology. Arlington: Conservation International.

Hamoto, A. 1995. Der Affe in der altorientalischen Kunst. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag.

Harney, E., A. Nayak, N. Patterson, P.P. Joglekar, V. Mushrif-Tripathy, S. Mallick and N. Rai 2019. Ancient DNA from the skeletons of Roopkund Lake reveals Mediterranean migrants in India. Nature Communications 10: 3670.

Harper, P.O., J. Aruz and F. Tallon 1992. The Royal City of Susa. Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Harte, K. J. 2000. Birds of the Thera wall paintings, in S. Sherratt (ed.) The Wall Paintings of Thera. Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August ­4 September 1997: 681–698. Athens: The Thera Foundation.

Hill, W.C.O. 1964. The maintenance of langurs (Colobidae) in captivity; experiences and some suggestions. Folia Primatologica 2: 222–231.

Hodos, T., C.R. Cartwright, J. Montgomery, G.M. Nowell, K. Crowder, A. Fletcher and Y. Gönster 2020. The origins of decorated ostrich eggs in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East. Antiquity 94: 381–400.

Joglekar, P.P. and P. Goyal 2011. Faunal remains from Shikarpur, a Harappan site in Gujarat, India. Iranian Journal of Archaeological Studies 1: 15–25.

Joglekar, P.P., C.V. Sharada and G.S. Abhayan 2013. Faunal diversity during the Harappan Period in Haryana: A review. Heritage Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology 1: 262–287.

Jung, C.G. 1964. The Man and his Symbols. New York: Doubleday.

Keul, I. 2002. Hanuman, der Gott in Affengestalt: Entwicklung und Erscheinungsformen seiner Verehrung. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Langdon, S. 1990. From monkey to man: the evolution of a Geometric sculptural type. American Journal of Archaeology 94: 407–424.

Legendart, A. 2020. Une classification animale crétoise à l’âge du bronze? Le point de vue des Minoens par le prisme de l’iconographie. Anthropozoologica 55: 247–255.

Lutgendorf, P. 2007. Hanuman’s Tale: The Messages of a Divine Monkey. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackay, E.J.H. 1938. Further Excavations at Mohenjo-daro (Volume I: Text). New Delhi: Government of India Press.

Marinatos, N. 1987. An offering of saffron to the Minoan goddess of nature: the role of the monkey and the importance of the saffron, in Proceedings of the Uppsala Symposium 1985: 123–132. Uppsala: Academia Ubsaliensis.

Marinatos, N. 1990. The monkey in the shrine, in V. Niniou-Kindeli (ed.) Πεπραγμένα του ΣΤ΄ Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου (Χανιά, 24-30 Αυγύστου 1986) (Volume A1’): 417–421. Chania: Philologikos Syllogos.

Marinatos, S. 1969. Excavations at Thera II (1968 Season). Athens: The Archaeological Society at Athens Library.

Marinatos, S. 1970. Excavations at Thera III (1969 Season). Athens: The Archaeological Society at Athens Library.

Marinatos, S. 1971. Excavations at Thera IV (1970 Season). Athens: The Archaeological Society at Athens Library.

Marshall, J. 1931. Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization. London: Arthur Probsthain.

Masseti, M. 1980. Le scimmie azzurre: la fauna etiopica delgi affreschi minoici di Santorino (Thera). Mondo Archeologico: 32–37.

Masseti, M. 1997. Representation of birds in Minoan art. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 7: 354–363.

Masseti, M. 2000. Forum article: did the study of ethology begin in Crete 4000 years ago? Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 12.1: 89–96.

Masseti, M. 2003. Taxonomic and behavioural aspects of the representation of mammals in Aegean Bronze Age art, in E. Kotjabopoulou, Y. Hamilakis, P. Halstead, C. Gamble and P. Elefanti (eds) Zooarchaeology in Greece: Recent Advances: 273–281. London: The British School at Athens.

Masseti, M. 2012. Forum article: did the study of ethology begin in Crete 4000 years ago? Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 12.1: 89–96.

Masseti, M. 2019. Monkeys in the ancient Greek world (2000–500 B.C.), in C. C. N. Casanova, F. M. C. Scalfari and C. Veracini (eds) History of Primatology: Yesterday and Today. The Western–Mediterranean Tradition: 21–51. Canterano: Aracne.

Masseti, M. 2021. An analysis of recent literature regarding the Minoan “blue monkeys” represented in Aegean Bronze Age art. Journal of Anthropological Sciences 99: 1–4.

McDermott, W.C. 1938. The Ape in Antiquity. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Meadow, R.H. 1991. Faunal remains and urbanism at Harappa, in R. H. Meadow (ed.) Harappa Excavations 1986-1990. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Third Millennium Urbanism (Monographs in World Archaeology 3): 89–106. Madison: Prehistory Press.

Medin, D. and S. Atran (eds) 1999. Folkbiology. London: Bradford Books.

Minniti C. and S.M.S. Sajjadi 2019. New data on non-human primates from the Ancient Near East: the recent discovery of a rhesus macaque burial at Shahr-i Sokhta, Iran. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 29: 538–548.

Morgan, L. 1985. Idea, idiom and iconography, in P. Darcque and J.-C. Poursat (eds) L’iconographie minoenne. Actes de la table ronde d’Athènes 21-22 avril 1983: 5–19. Athens: Ecole française d’Athènes.

Morgan, L. 1988. The Miniature Wall Paintings of Thera: a Study in Aegean Culture and Iconography. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Osypinska, M., M. Skibniewski and P. Osypinski 2021. Ancient pets. The health, diet and diversity of cats, dogs and monkeys from the Red Sea port of Berenice (Egypt) in the 1st-2nd centuries AD. World Archaeology: 1–15.

Panagiotopoulos, D. 2001. Keftiu in context: Theban tomb-paintings as a historical source. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 20.3: 263–283.

Papageorgiou, I. and K. Birtacha 2008. Η εικονογραφία του πιθήκου στην Εποχή του Χαλκού. Η περίπτωση των τοιχογραφιών από το Ακρωτήρι Θήρας, in C. Doumas (ed.) Ακρωτήρι Θήρας: Τριάντα χρόνια έρευνας 1967-1997. Επιστημονική συνάντηση 19-20 Δεκεμβρίου 1997: 287–316. Athens: The Archaeological Society at Athens.

Pareja, M.N. 2015. Monkey and Ape Iconography in Minoan Art. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia.

Pareja, M.N. 2017. Monkey and Ape Iconography in Aegean Art. Uppsala: Åström.

Pareja, M.N., T. McKinney, J. Mayhew, J.M. Setchell, R. Heaton and S. Nash 2020a. A new identification of the monkeys depicted in a Bronze Age wall painting from Akrotiri, Thera. Primates 61: 159–168.

Pareja, M.N., T. McKinney and J.M. Setchell 2020b. Aegean monkeys and the importance of cross-disciplinary collaboration in archaeoprimatology: a reply to Urbani and Youlatos. Primates 61: 767–774.

Parker, P. 1997. African vervets on Crete and Thera during MM IIIB–LM IA. American Journal of Archaeology 101: 348.

Phillips, J. 2005. A question of reception, in J. Clarke (ed.) Archaeological Perspectives on the Transmission and Transformation of Culture in the Eastern Mediterranean: 39–47. Barnsley: Oxbow Books.

Phillips, J. 2008. Aegyptiaca on the Island of Crete in Their Chronological Context: a Critical Review. Vienna: Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Piątkowska J. and M.R. Koliński 2015. The animal economy of people living in the settlement of Tell Rad Shaqrah (Syria). Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 24: 675–692.

Pieniążek, M. 2017. Amber and carnelian: two different careers in the Aegean Bronze Age. Fontes Archaeologici Posnanienses 52: 51–66.

Pittman, H. 1984. Art of the Bronze Age: Southeastern Iran, Western Central Asia, and the Indus Valley. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Pocock, R. I. 1907. A monographic revision of monkeys of the genus Cercopithecus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1907: 677–746.

Porada, E. 1948. The Corpus of Ancient Near Eastern Seals in North American Collections. The Collection of the Pierpont Morgan Library. New York: Pantheon Books.

Pruetz, J. D. and C. Greenlaw 2021. Occam’s razor revisited: guenon species morphology supports evidence for an African influence in Bronze Age Aegean fresco primate iconography from Akrotiri, Thera. Primates: 703–707.

Pruzsinszky, R. 2016. Musicians and monkeys: Ancient Near Eastern clay plaques displaying musicians and their socio-cultural role, in A. Bellia and C. Marconi (eds) Musicians in Ancient Coroplastic Art: Iconography, Ritual Contexts, and Functions: 23–34. Pisa/Rome: Fabrizio Serra editore.

Reese, D.S. 1985. Hippopotamus and elephant teeth from Kition, in V. Karageorghis (ed.) Excavations at Kition V (The Pre-Phoenician Levels II): 391–408. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities.

Reese, D.S. 1998. A Hippopotamus tooth from Hala Sultan Tekke, Cyprus, in P. Åström (ed.) The Wells: 140–146. Jonsered: Åström.

Reese, D.S. 2006. The invertebrates, in E. Hallager and B.P. Hallager (eds) The Greek-Swedish Excavations at the Agia Aikaterini Square Kastelli, Khania 1970-1987, 2001, 2005 and 2008: 396–417. Stockholm: Svenska Institutet i Athen.

Reese, D.S. and P.P. Betancourt 2008. The neritid shells. Hesperia 77: 576.

Rehak, P. 1999. The monkey frieze from Xeste 3, room 4: reconstruction and interpretation, in P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur and W.D. Niemeier (eds) Meletemata. Studies in Aegean Archaeology presented to Malcolm H. Wiener (Aegaeum 20): 705–708. Liège: Peeters.

Reinholdt, C. 2008. Der frühbronzezeitliche Schmuckhortfund von Kap Kolonna: Ägina und die Ägäis im Goldzeitalter des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Rowe, J.H. 1966. Diffusionism and archaeology. American Antiquity 31.3: 334–337.

Sarianidi, V.I. 1983. Anthropomorphic divinities of Ancient Bactria, in P. Snoy (ed.) Ethnologie und Geschichte: Festschrift fur Karl Jettmar: 515–525. Stuttgart: Ergon.

Schmitz-Pillmann, P. 2006. Landschaftselemente in der minoisch-mykenischen Wandmalerei. Berlin: Willmuth Arenhövel.

Schultz, A.H. 1939. (Review of) W.C. McDermott 1938. The ape in antiquity. Journal of Mammalogy 20: 114.

Scott, A., R.C. Power, V. Altmann-Wendling, M. Artzy, M.A.S. Martin, S. Eisenmann, R. Hagan, D.C. Salazar-García, Y. Salmon, D. Yegorov, I. Milevski, I. Finkelstein, P.W. Stockhammer and C. Warinner. 2021. Exotic foods reveal contact between South Asia and the Near East during the second millennium BCE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118: 2014956117.

Sharada, C.V., P.P. Joglekar and V.S. Shinde 2012. Faunal remains from Late Harappan Phase at Mitathal, Bhiwani District, Harayana. Man and Environment 27.1: 31–41.

Skourtanioti, E. 2020. Genomic history of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, Northern Levant, and Southern Caucasus. Cell 181:1158–1175.

Spycket, A. 1998. ‘Le carnaval des animaux’: on some musician monkeys from the ancient Near East. Iraq 60:1–10.

Thomas, P.K., P.P. Joglekar, Y. Matsushima, S.J. Pawankar and A. Desphande 1997. Subsistence based on animals in the Harappan culture of Gujarat, India. Anthropozoologica 25–26: 767–776.

Urbani, B. 2013. Arqueoprimatología: Reflexión sobre una disciplina y dos localidades antropoespeleológicas venezolanas. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología 45: 66–68.

Urbani, B. 2021. Archaeoprimatology, the longue durée interface between humans and nonhuman primates. Annual Review of Anthropology 50in press.

Urbani, B. and M. Lizarralde (eds) 2020. Neotropical Ethnoprimatology: Indigenous Peoples’ Perceptions of and Interactions with Nonhuman Primates. New York: Springer Press.

Urbani, B. and D. Youlatos 2012. Aegean monkeys: From a comprehensive view to a reinterpretation, in Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on the Zoogeography and Ecology of Greece and Adjacent Regions: 453.

Urbani, B. and D. Youlatos 2020a. A new look at the Minoan ‘blue’ monkeys. Antiquity 94: 1–5.

Urbani, B. and D. Youlatos 2020b. Occam’s razor, archeoprimatology, and the ‘blue’ monkeys of Thera: a reply to Pareja et al. Primates 61: 757–765.

Urbani, B. and D. Youlatos 2020c. On the earliest representations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): were African apes traded to Bronze Age Elam? International Journal of Primatology 41(4): 654–663.

Urbani, B. and D. Youlatos 2021. The primates of Susa: The depictions of monkeys in stone statuettes from Elam. الشرق Ash-sharq, Bulletin of the Ancient Near East Archaeological, Historical and Societal Studies 5: 1–9.

Urbani, B. and D. Youlatos 2022. Minoan monkeys: Re-examining the archaeoprimatological evidence, in B. Urbani, D. Youlatos and A. Antczak (eds) World Archaeoprimatology: Interconnections of Humans and Nonhuman Primates in the Past in press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Van Buren, D. 1939. The Fauna of Ancient Mesopotamia as Represented in Art. Rome: Pontificum Institutum Biblicum.

Vandervondelen, M. 1994. Singes accroupis: étude de quelques statuettes de la période prépalatiale crétoise. Studia varia Bruxellensia 3: 175–183.

VanPool, C. and T. VanPool 2009. The semantics of local knowledge: using ethnosemantics to study folk taxonomies represented in the archaeological record. Journal of Anthropological Research 65.4: 529–554.

Vanschoonwinkel, J. 1990. Animal representations in Theran and other Aegean arts, in D.A. Hardy, C. Doumas, J.A. Sakellarakis and P.M. Warren (eds) Thera and the Aegean World III. Proceedings of the Third International Congress, Santorini, Greece, 3-9 September 1989 (Vol. 1: Archaeology): 327–347. London: The Thera Foundation.

Vanschoonwinkel, J. 1996. Les animaux dans l’art minoen, in D.S. Reese (ed.) Pleistocene and Holocene Fauna of Crete and Its First Settlers: 351–412. Madison, WI: Prehistory Press.

Vlachopoulos, A. 2000. The reed motif in the Thera wall paintings and its association with Aegean pictorial art, in S. Sherratt (ed.) The Wall Paintings of Thera. Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Petros M. Nomikos Conference Centre, Thera, Hellas, 30 August ­4 September 1997: 631–656. Athens: The Thera Foundation.

Vlachopoulos, A. 2007. Disiecta membra: the wall paintings from the ‘Porter’s Lodge’ at Akrotiri, in P. Betancourt, M.C. Nelson and H. Williams (eds) Krinoi kai Limenes: Studies in Honor of Joseph and Maria Shaw: 131–138. Philadelphia: Instap Academic Press.

Vlachopoulos, A. and S. Sotiropoulou 2012. The blue colour on the Akrotiri wall-paintings: from the palette of the Theran painter to the laboratory analysis. Talanta 44: 245–272.

Wolfson, E.G. 2018. Pictorial Representations of Monkeys and Simianesque Creatures in Greek Art. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Columbia University of Missouri.



How to Cite

Binnberg, J., Urbani, B., & Youlatos, D. (2021). Langurs in the Aegean Bronze Age? A Review of a Recent Debate on Archaeoprimatology and Animal Identification in Ancient Iconography. Journal of Greek Archaeology, 6, 100–128. Retrieved from